Part 3: Aftermath
By Ed Payne
After four years of bloodshed, the Civil War ground to a conclusion in the spring of 1865. Of those Landrum men who had joined Confederate units, only the records for Wiley H. Landrum trace him until the end. The 15th AL Partisan Rangers in which he enrolled had merged with the 56th AL Partisan Rangers. Wiley’s name appears on the prisoner of war register following the surrender of his regiment at Citronelle, Alabama, on 4 May. He was among 10,000 troops under the command of CSA Lt General Richard Taylor who stacked their arms that day.
Samuel Landrum last appears on muster rolls of the 2nd AL Light Artillery when he was returned under arrest on 12 Nov 1863. A later pension application by his widow cited service in “Cobb’s Battalion,” suggesting that he remained with his company when it merged into Cobb’s Battery (1st Kentucky Artillery) in January of 1864. Cobb’s Battery also surrendered as part of Taylor’s command, but Samuel Landrum’s name has not been located on the records.
The Landrum men who joined the Union army’s 1st New Orleans signed up for a three year term
of service—which meant remaining in uniform until March of 1867. But officials disbanded the regiment as of 1 June 1866. Thomas Landrum, William Pinkney Landrum, and Henry Landrum received honorable discharges and the remaining $75 of their bounty money. Thomas left behind the graves of his wife Sarah and three children; his brother Linson B. Landrum; his first cousin John Landrum; and the husbands of three first cousins, Thomas Holliman, James W. Lee, and John Tucker. The Landrum family and in-laws paid a steep price for their Unionist sentiments.
Even before leaving New Orleans, Thomas Landrum sought to settle a matter with the army. In July of 1864 he had turned over three mules, described as in ‘good condition,’ to the Quarter Master of the 1st New Orleans and received a voucher for $600. Payment was not forthcoming and the Congressional Reconstruction Acts of 1867 placed the claim in limbo. In 1871 the matter passed to the newly created Southern Claims Commission (SCC). Thomas found that his service in the Union Army did not remove the burden to prove that he had been loyal throughout the war. The definition of ‘loyalty’ under SCC rules specifically excluded those who, like Thomas, had served in the Confederate Army other than by forced conscription (see Newt Knight: Southern Unionism under Scrutiny). Whether aware of this provision or not, Thomas never acknowledged his Confederate service. After contracting with an attorney in Washington, D.C. and submitting numerous affidavits, Thomas received a reduced payment of $450 in December of 1873.
Thomas Landrum re-married to Martha Jane Johnson Britt in 1867. She was the widow of Alfred Britt who had served in the 7th Battalion MS Infantry and, following his capture in July of 1864, died at Camp Morton the next month (see Camp Morton: A Black and Damning Trail). In 1869, under Military Reconstruction, Thomas received an appointment to the Board of Registration for District 3 of Wayne County. His participation in postwar Reconstruction politics as a scalawag could have played a role in the couple’s decision, in 1872, to leave Wayne County for Louisiana – where they would spend the rest of their lives.
In 1883 Thomas applied for a Union disability pension, citing the after-effects of sunstroke as well as continuing chronic diarrhea. This initiated a lengthy official investigation into his military service, personal and family history, and medical status. After five years, Thomas received approval for a pension of $6 per month retroactive to the date of application. In terms of household purchasing power, that would equate to about $156 today. By the time of Thomas’s death on 27 June 1898, the pension had increased to $12 per month.
Soon after her husband’s death, Martha Landrum filed for a widow’s pension. The expansion of the Federal Civil War veterans’ pension system during the 1880s and 1890s had produced a similar expansion in the bureaucracy needed to oversee it. The military muster roll record cards that prove so useful to modern genealogists today began as a method to organize, locate, and evaluate eligibility for pension benefits. When Thomas had first applied for a pension 16 years earlier, a check was made for prior Confederate service – which would have disqualified him. But the search only covered Mississippi units, whereas Thomas enlisted in the 2nd Battalion AL Light Artillery. The application by Martha Landrum faced more intense scrutiny, ending with a Special Examination that called on witnesses from Sabine Parish, Louisiana back to Wayne County, Mississippi. The affidavits finally revealed Thomas’s service in the Alabama Confederate unit and in 1902 Martha’s application was rejected for that reason.
Luckily for Martha and other Piney Woods 1st New Orleans veterans and their widows, official attitudes softened over time. In 1904, officials suspended the prior Confederate service disqualification. Southern Union veterans whose dual service had resulted in rejection of their pension claims, such as Hanson Walters of Jones County, could now reapply (see Part 3: Ed Payne on Jones County widows). Martha’s application was resubmitted and approved. She continued to receive a monthly payment until her death in 1923.
The sons of Henry Marshall Landrum Sr.
Thomas’s son HENRY LANDRUM moved to Texas at the end of 1868. En route he married his companion Nancy Reid. The couple settled in Bell County. In 1903, at the age of 57, Henry filed for a Union disability pension citing lung problems resulting from a bout of measles while in the 1st New Orleans Infantry, along with chest pains and rheumatism. Henry’s wife Nancy died in 1906. A decade later, the 70 year-old veteran married 27 year-old Dot Bennett and remained with her until his death on 12 July 1923. She filed for a widow’s pension only to learn that legislation specified 27 June 1905 as the eligibility cut-off date for such re-marriages. Understandably upset by this turn of events, Dot wrote numerous letters of complaint over the following years. Her pension application was never approved, but in 1940 she did receive three years worth of accrued pension payments that her later husband had not collected. Dot eventually remarried and lived until 1965.
James Johnson Landrum’s son WILLIAM HENRY LANDRUM moved to East Texas in fall of 1865, where he labored to make a living as a one-armed farmer. He married Phoebe Wright in 1866 and, following her death in 1894, wed 18 year-old Eliza Spikes in 1898. Although 36 years older than his second wife, William Henry outlived her, too; she died in 1901. The 1910 census found William Henry back in Jones County, living with his nephew Hill G. Landrum. But he returned to Texas and in 1914 applied for a state pension designated for those Confederate veterans in “indigent circumstances.” He died in Newton County, Texas, on 6 November 1918.
LINSON B. LANDRUM was probably buried in the Charity Hospital Cemetery in New Orleans. In 1870, his widow Elizabeth Ann Pitts Landrum was enumerated in Jones County, in a household with six of their eight children. She formed a relationship with Confederate veteran Elijah Shoemake. They moved to Nacogdoches, Texas and married in 1882. Elizabeth died in 1885.
HENRY MARSHALL LANDRUM JR was appointed a constable for Jones County in 1864, a position that exempted him from Confederate military service. Around the same time, he boldly named a son Ulysses Grant Landrum (see Unionist naming of MS children— revisited). He was reappointed to the constable position in 1869. Henry continued to farm in Jones County until his death in 1900.
SAMUEL LANDRUM cannot be located with certainty on either the 1870 or 1880 census. Records indicate he married Mary F. Johnson around 1865. On the 1900 census he is found living in Wayne County with his wife and four children. He died in 1910, after which his wife filed for a Mississippi Confederate pension. In 1938 a son applied for a government military headstone which cited his service Cobb’s Battalion.
WILLIAM PINKNEY LANDRUM married Sarah A. Cooper in March of 1863 according to later pension affidavits by his cousins Lewis and William Manuel Landrum. After the war, William Pinkney farmed in Wayne County. In 1881 he filed for a Union disability pension citing rheumatism and lung disease, which was approved by the end of the year. In the midst of seeking a pension increase in 1890, William Pinkney Landrum died of “epilepsy & brain disease.” Although his headstone in Bezer Cemetery, Smith County lists his year of death as 1891, two documents signed by his doctor in the pension file report he died on 13 March 1890. His widow, Sarah, received a pension until her death in 1928.
The sons of Jesse Marion Landrum:
WILEY H. LANDRUM married widow Sarah Elizabeth McCraven in 1856. After the war they moved to Jackson County where Wiley produced charcoal. If Wiley held any harsh feelings towards his first cousin William Pinkney Landrum for his Union service, it did not prevent him from bestowing the same family name on a son born in 1866. Wiley probably died around 1883.
LEWIS L. LANDRUM married a woman named Carrie in 1857. On the 1900 census Carrie reported having given birth to ten children of whom seven were still alive. Lewis farmed in Jones County. No cemetery or family tree information was found indicating his death date, but I discovered a small item in the Laurel Chronicle of 21 October 1910 (page 6) mentioned that “Lew Landrum, an old citizen of Jones County” had died the previous Thursday – or 13 October.
WILLIAM MANUEL LANDRUM married Mary Emily Lewis around 1874 (on the 1910 census he indicated it was his second marriage). The 1900 census listed seven children in the household, ranging in age from 23 to five. William Manuel died in 1914. Two years later Mary filed made application for a Confederate pension for indigent widows. She lived until 1933.
As noted previously, JOHN LANDRUM died of tuberculosis while serving in the 1st New Orleans Infantry. His mother, 61 year-old widow Jemima Landrum, applied for a pension in 1867 by reason of her economic dependence on her late son prior to his enlistment. A portion of the statement she dictated read that:
“during (John Landrum’s) lifetime he reared a cabin on public land and operated a small farm, off of the proceeds of which (he and his mother Jemima) subsisted partially – that with his services as a laborer they did live – Since his enlistment in the Federal Army she has had to abandon the farming business & resort to the practice of Midwifery for a scanty support – that she owns no real estate that her personal estate consists of one bed and a little household furniture not exceeding fifty dollars in value . . .”
Approval finally came in 1869 with an authorized payment of $8 per month. Jemima died in 1875.
This inquiry into the Landrum family demonstrates that, like several other Piney Woods kinship groups, the Landrums generally opposed secession (see Collins Family Unionism and The Family of James Richard Welch). The 1873 affidavit of Joel E. Welborn indicates that some family members were outspoken enough to have drawn the attention of Confederate officials. Various pressures caused Landrum men to enlist in Southern units, but their lack of commitment resulted in desertions by the end of 1862. Thomas Landrum may have led a band of deserters who hid out in the Piney Woods. Circumstances also suggest he played a role, largely undocumented, in facilitating the enlistment of Mississippians in the 1st New Orleans Infantry. The war and pension records of the Landrum men, while lacking insights into motivation, add to the complex picture of Civil War loyalties in the Piney Woods region.
My thanks to Landrum family descendants Sandra Nash and Tommy Robinson for providing information, although the conclusions I draw may in some cases differ from theirs—ep.