Historical works by Dr. Victoria Bynum

Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History

Texas State University, San Marcos

A graduate of the University of California, San Diego, Victoria Bynum is an award-winning scholar and NEH Fellow who has researched class, race, and gender relations in the Civil War Era South for more than thirty years.

BOOKS: (to learn more or to purchase, visit Barnes & Nobleor University of North Carolina Pressor Amazon Books)


FSoJ cover

Unruly Women cover

The Long Shadow of the Civil War: Southern Dissent and Its Legacies. University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

The Free State of Jones: Mississippi’s Longest Civil War. University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Unruly Women: The Politics of Social and Sexual Control in the Old South. University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

FSOJ movie edition


Purchase online from Amazon, or Barnes & Noble, or the University of North Carolina Press.

For a discussion of the movie edition of Free State of Jones and its connection to the movie of same name: click here.


  • “Disordered Households: Reconstruction, Klan Terror, and the Law,” in Household War: How Americans Lived and Fought the Civil War, edited by Lisa Tendrich Frank and LeeAnn Whites. University of Georgia Press, 2020
  • “Newt Knight and the Free State of Jones: Myth, Memory, and Imagination,” Journal of Mississippi History, Civil War Sesquicentennial issue, 2017.
  • “East Texas Unionism: Warren J. Collins, Big Thicket Jayhawker,” in Lone Star Unionism and Dissent: The Other Civil War Texas, edited by Jesus F. de la Tejas.  University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.
  • “The Seduction and Suicide of Mariah Murray: A Civil War Era Tragedy,” Ohio Valley History, Sesquicentennial issue on Women and the Civil War, 2015.
  • “Class and Culture in the White South,” in The American South: a Reader and Guide, edited by Daniel Letwin. Edinburgh University Press, 2011.
  • “Negotiating Boundaries of Race and Gender in Jim Crow Mississippi: The Women of the Knight Family,” in Crossroads of Circumstances: Women, Race, and Culture in Mississippi, 1690-2001, edited by Elizabeth A. Payne, Martha Swain, and Marjorie J. Spruill. University of Georgia Press, 2010.
  • “Occupied At Home: North Carolina Women Confront Confederate Forces,” in Occupied Women: Protection, Violation, and the Sexual Politics of the Union Military, edited by LeeAnn Whites and Alecia Long. Louisiana State University Press, 2009.
  • “‘We Never Yielded in The Struggle:’ The Home Front,” in Struggle For a Vast Future: The American Civil War, edited by Aaron Sheehan-Dean with an introduction by James McPherson. Osprey Publishing, April 2006.
  • “Telling and Retelling the Legend of the Free State of Jones,” In Guerrillas, Unionists, and Violence on the Confederate Home Front, edited by Daniel E. Sutherland. University of Arkansas, 1999.
  • “Misshapen Identity: Memory, Folklore, and the Legend of Rachel Knight.” In Discovering the Women in Slavery: Emancipating Perspectives on the American Past, edited by Patricia Morton. University of Georgia Press, 1996. Revised and Republished in Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Boundaries in North American History, edited by Martha Hodes. New York University Press, 1999.
  • “Mothers, Lovers, and Wives: Images of Poor White Women in Edward Isham’s Autobiography.” In The Confessions of Edward Isham: A Poor White Life of the Old South, edited by Charles C. Bolton and Scott P. Culclasure. University of Georgia Press, 1998.
  • “‘White Negroes’ in Segregated Mississippi: Miscegenation, Racial Identity, and the Law.” Journal of Southern History, May 1998.
  • “Reshaping the Bonds of Womanhood: Divorce in Reconstruction North Carolina.” In Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, edited by Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, with an introduction by James McPherson. Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • “War Within a War: Women’s Participation in the Revolt of the North Carolina Piedmont, 1863-65,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies, Fall 1987.
  • “The Lowest Rung: Court Control Over Poor White and Free Black Women,” Southern Exposure, Nov./Dec. 1984. Republished in Black Women in United States History: From Colonial Times Through the Nineteenth Century. Volume I, edited by Darlene Clark Hine. Carlson Publishing, 1990.


  • Afterword, The Civil War Guerrilla: Unfolding the Black Flag in History, Memory, and Myth, edited by Matthew Hulbert and Joseph Beilein Jr. University Press of Kentucky, 2015.
  • Interview about “Free State of Jones,” in Talking About History: Historians Discuss the Civil War (Civil War Forum’s Q&A, Book 1), edited by David Woodbury. Amazon E-Book, 2014.
  • “Rebels Against the Confederacy,” Hillviews: The Life and Times of Texas State University-San Marcos, vol. 38, no. 1 (spring/summer 2008).
  • “The Five Classes of Women in Antebellum North Carolina,” Antebellum Issue of Tar Heel Junior Historian, November 1996.
  • “Hetty Cary,” “Sallie A. Brock,” “Phoebe Pember,” “Marriage and Divorce,” all in Encyclopedia of the Confederacy, edited by Richard Current. Simon and Schuster, 1993.

4 replies »

  1. There was a community of People of Color an Wilkes County, North Carolina that became Ashe County in 1799. There were many AndersonsIs in the community. Is there any information on these people?

    Liked by 1 person

  2. The photo of the Tennessee Newt I’m guessing is Newton’s father Albert with Mason Rainy, not Rebecca Jenkins. Mason was found and adopted by Albert’s father in Central Alabama when returning from Georgia on business. Mason and her brother were the only survivors of a wagon train raid. She was described as dark and looked like an American Indian or Spanish.


    • Hi Duane,
      Thanks for your thoughts. I’m sorry that you did not post this under that Tennessee photograph that you reference, as we might have been able to get a good discussion going. As for your history of Mason Rainey’s origins, I would love to know your sources. I’ve never seen or found any evidence of her birthplace or her life before marriage to Albert Knight.



  3. The information I have is that the brother died early and Albert’s father and mother adopted her. Albert was taken with her and built her a house the way and where she wanted it, on the Leaf River. The had several children along with Newton who was towards the younger siblings. My great great grandfather was a brother and was the oldest who, with his brother(2nd to oldest) migrated to Ashley Country Arkansas.


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